Lower viscosity and alkalinity allows C² lithium hardeners to achieve deeper and more complete penetration. This creates a denser, harder bond, leaving far fewer un-reacted calcium hydroxide molecules with a wider distribution of lithium particles during absorption.

Smaller molecules of lithium make the reaction more even and consistent, creating a denser surface. On the other hand, sodium and potassium densifiers react inconsistently and irregularly, leaving clusters of calcium hydroxide, reacted and un-reacted, spread throughout the concrete surface resulting in a weaker, irregular bond. This is the basis for a potential problem if moisture should penetrate into the concrete substrate, initiating an Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR).

C² lithium hardeners react with calcium elements in concrete, building strong and very stable silicate structures, maximizing and extending lithium reactivity. C² lithium hardeners also react with calcium hydroxide covering the substrate, forming complex tri-calcium silicate compounds that keep moisture out. These compounds block the micro pores in concrete, practically eliminating moisture absorption into the concrete substrate. Although these reactions are common to most surface densifiers, C² lithium hardeners react more completely and evenly than sodium and potassium.

C² lithium hardeners will not contribute to map cracking or crazing and will not form silica gel to seal the concrete surface like sodium and potassium hardeners.

C² lithium hardeners will not absorb water like sodium or potassium and are less water-soluble. Thus the concrete is more water resistant.

C² lithium hardeners will prevent or reduce Alkali Silica Reactivity (ASR). Silica in the aggregate reacts with alkalies in hydrated cement to form a gel that expands when water is introduced. This reaction produces huge pressures that cause cracks to develop in concrete - cracks that lead to accelerated deterioration of the surface protective layer. These cracks and micro-cracks allow water to penetrate into the substrate, causing corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze thaw damage, and other problems. C² lithium hardeners will help keep moisture out of the substrate and prevent occurrence of a chemical reaction between alkalies, silica and moisture. ASR reactions will not occur without water.

Sodium and potassium hardeners directly contribute to the ASR issue by the very nature of adding potassium and sodium into the concrete. Lithium based C² hardeners, using a sophisticated and proprietary chemistry, are free of potassium and sodium. C² densifiers deliver lithium components into the concrete substrate as opposed to potassium and sodium.

All C² Lithium products are Planet Safe.